A Quick Reference to Adverbials in Klingon
The following is a list of all the regular adverbials in Klingon.
|batlh||honored, with honor, honorably, honorable, well||[TKD, TKW]|
|bong||accidentally, by accident||[TKD]|
|chaq||perhaps, maybe||[TKD, TKW]|
|chIch||purposely, on purpose, intentionally||[TKD]|
|Do’||luckily, with luck||[TKD]|
|ghIq||and then, after that, by then, subsequently||[HQ 8:3]|
|Hochlogh||all times, always (emphatic)||[KGT]|
|loQ||slightly, a little bit||[TKD, TKW]|
|motlh||usually, typically, as expected||[KGT]|
|nIteb||alone, acting alone||[TKDa, TKW]|
|nom||fast, quickly||[TKD, TKW]|
|ngugh||then, at that time||[News 1999-11-05]|
|paghlogh||zero times, never (emphatic)||[KGT]|
|pe’vIl||forcefully, by force||[TKDa, TKW]|
|pIj||often, frequently||[TKD, TKW, KGT]|
|qen||recently, a short time ago||[News 1999-03-02]|
|roD||customarily, habitually, regularly||[KGT]|
|rut||sometimes, occasionally||[TKD, TKW, KGT]|
|tagha’||finally, at last||[News 1999-11-05]|
|tlhoS||almost, nearly, virtually, not quite||[KGT]|
|tlhoy||overly, to an excessive degree, too much||[HQ 8:3]|
|vaj||so, then, thus, in that case||[TKD, TKW]|
|wej||not yet||[TKD, TKW]|
Most commonly adverbials are come at the very beginning of a sentence (though occasionally an adverbial can be preceded by other stuff, such as a time element). [TKD 5.4, TKDa 6.7]
|nom Soppu’||They ate quickly.|
|DaHjaj nom Soppu’||Today they ate quickly.|
Adverbials are also quite commonly used as exclamations, and then work sentences in their own right. E.g.: wej Not yet! (Don’t do it yet!), nom Come on! Quickly!, nIteb Alone! (Do it by yourself!) [TKD 5.4]
And, finally, if an object is topicalized with the -’e’ suffix, then the adverbial can come after the object noun. [TKDa 6.7]
|HaqwI’ yISam||Find the surgeon!|
|DaH HaqwI’ yISam||Find the surgeon now!|
|HaqwI’’e’ yISam||Find the surgeon!|
|HaqwI’’e’ DaH yISam||Find the surgeon now!|
There are also two special adverbials (jay’ intensely and neH only) that, syntactically, work differently than the rest of the adverbials.1
|jay’||intensely (invective)||At the end of a sentence||[TKDa 5.4]|
|neH||only, merely, just||Follows a verb or noun it modifies||[TKD 5.4, TKW]|
jay’ is always placed last in the sentence an has the effect of intensifying it.
|tIbach jay’||Shoot him, goddamnit!|
When neH comes after a verb it has the effect of trivializing it.
|vIqIppu’||I hit him.|
|vIqIppu’ neH||I merely hit him.|
|Duj yIQotlh||Disable the ship!|
|Duj yIQotlh neH||Only disable the ship!|
The use of neH in the previous example implies that the ship should be disabled, but not damaged further.2
Alone among the adverbials neH can also be used to modify the meaning of a noun, it then comes after the noun, and means only, alone.
|yaS neH||only the officer, the officer alone|
|jonta’ neH||just the engine|
Finally adverbials to indicate repetitions are created using a number plus the suffix -logh. This is not limited to the examples in the above list (wa’logh once and cha’logh twice), but may be used creatively with any number:
|vIbachpu’||I shot him/her.|
|wa’logh vIbachpu’||I shot him/her once.|
|cha’logh vIbachpu’||I shot him/her twice.|
|wa’maHlogh vIbachpu’||I shot him/her ten times.|
|loS’maH cha’logh vIbachpu’||I shot him/her forty two times.|
There are also two adverbials which may be viewed as special cases of -logh. These are paghlogh zero times, never (from pagh meaning nothing or zero) and Hochlogh all times, always (from Hoch meaning all or every). These mean the same thing as not never and reH always but carry extra emphasis.
|not vIbachpu’||I never shot him/her.|
|paghlogh vIbachpu’||I did never shoot him/her!|
And that concludes this quick reference to adverbials.
1 There is also the word je (also, and, too) which, although it is considered a conjunction rather than an adverbial, it is used in a similar fashion to neH. Both je and neH can be used after either verbs or nouns (though je follow one or more nouns, and neH a single one).
|qama’ vIbach neH||The only thing I did was to shoot the prisoner.|
|qama’ neH vIbach||The prisoner was the only one I shot.|
|qama’ vIbach je||I shot the prisoner too.|
|qama’ ’avwI’ je vIbach||I shot the prisoner and the guard.|
2 When neH only is used with he or she as subject, it can be hard to distinguish it from neH want. Extra pronouns or puctuation can then usually be used to clarify the meaning.
|qama’ vIbach vIneH||I want to shoot the prisoner.|
|qama’ vIbach neH||He wants me to shoot the prisoner
or I only shot the prisoner.
|qama’ vIbach neH jIH||I only shot the prisoner.|
|qama’ vIbach neH ghaH
or qama’ vIbach, neH
|He wants me to shoot the prisoner|