Klingon Pocket Dictionary: Suffix Guide

Verb Suffixes

1.Oneself/One Another [TKD 4.2.1]

-’egh oneself

Indicates that the action affects the subject; requires a prefix indicating that there is no object. Can be used together with -moH to form a command of a stative verb, e.g. yI­tuj­’egh­moH Heat yourself! [KGT p. 117]

-chuq one another, each other

Requires a prefix indicating plural subject and no object.

2.Volition/Predisposition [TKD 4.2.2]

-nIS need
-qang willing
-rup ready, prepared (referring to beings)
-beH ready, set up (referring to devices)
-vIp afraid

It is a cultural taboo to use the suffix -vIp with I or we as subject.

3.Change [TKD 4.2.3]

-choH change in state, change in direction

E.g. cho­muS­choH I am beginning to hate you (but I did not hate you before). The sentence pa’ ghoS­choH He/she is starting to go there implies that either the person was not going anywhere before, or that he/she changed direction.

-qa’ resume, do again

Indicates that the action stopped, then began again, e.g. wI­nej­qa’ We are resuming searching for it or We search for it again.

4.Cause [TKD 4.2.4]

-moH cause

The subject causes a change in condition or creates a new one, e.g. qul vI­chen­moH I light a fire (lit. I cause a fire to take form). Makes intransitive verbs transitive, e.g. yI­qIj­moH Blacken it! (lit. Cause it to be black!). Required when making an imperative out of a stative verb (see also -’egh above).

5.Indefinite Subject/Ability [TKD 4.2.5]

-lu’ indefinite subject

Indicates that the subject is unknown, indefinite, and/or general, the verb can not have a subject, and the prefixes are used in a different way (see bottom row of prefix table). Sentences using -lu’ are often translated into English passive voice, e.g. Da­qaw­lu’ You are remembered.

-laH can, able

E.g. jI­Qong­laH I can sleep; tlhI­ngan Hol vI­jatlh­laH I am able to speak Klingon.

6.Qualification [TKD 4.2.6]

-chu’ clearly, perfectly

Indicates that an action is performed absolutely properly. [PK]

-bej certainly, undoubtedly
-ba’ obviously [TKDa]

Indicates that the speaker thinks what he/she says should be obvious to the listener, e.g. QIp­ba’ He/she is obviously stupid. There is still room for doubt though, the suffix does not imply as strong a conviction as -bej.

-law’ seemingly, apparently

Expresses that the speaker is uncertain, and may even be thought of as meaning I think or I suspect, e.g. Du­SeH­law’ He/she seems to be controlling you or I think he/she is controlling you.

7.Aspect [TKD 4.2.7]

-pu’ perfective

Indicates that the action is completed.

-ta’ accomplished, done

Indicates that the action was deliberately undertaken and completed.

-taH continuous

Indicates that the action is ongoing.

-lI’ in progress

Indicates that the action is ongoing and proceeding toward a known goal.

8.Honorific [TKD 4.2.8]

-neS honorific

Indicates extreme politeness or deference. Used only when addressing a superior, e.g. HI­ja’­neS Do me the honor of telling me. It is never required.

9.Syntactic Markers [TKD 4.2.9]

Subordinate-Clause Markers

A subordinate clause can occur either before or after the rest of the sentence, e.g. cha yI­baH qa­ra’­DI’ or qa­ra’­DI’ cha yI­baH Fire the torpedoes at my command!

-DI’ when, as soon as
-chugh if
-pa’ before
-vIS while

The suffix -vIS is always used along with the type 7 suffix -taH, e.g. bI­Qong­taH­vIS while you are sleeping.

-mo’ due to, because of [TKDa]

Note that there is also a noun suffix -mo’ with the same meaning. [TKD 6.2.2]

Relative-Clause Marker

-bogh which

A relative clause takes the place of a noun in a sentence. It has a head noun to which its verb refers, e.g. qIp­bogh yaS the officer who hit him/her or yaS qIp­bogh the officer whom he/she hit. If there is more than one noun in the clause, the head noun is indicated with the suffix -’e’ topic, e.g. loD­Hom qIp­bogh mang­’e’ the soldier who hit the boy. [TKD 6.2.3; TKW pp. 142, 189]

Purpose-Clause Marker

-meH for, for the purpose of, in order to

The purpose clause always precedes the noun or verb whose purpose it is describing, e.g. ja’­chuq­meH roj­Hom a truce in order to confer; jagh lu­HoH­meH lu­nej­taH They are searching for the enemy in order to kill him/her. [TKD 6.2.4]

Main-Clause Modifiers

-’a’ interrogative

Indicates that a sentence is a yes/no question, e.g. bI­jang­’a’ Will you answer? [TKD 6.4]

-jaj may, let [TKDa]

Expresses a desire or wish on the part of the speaker that something take place in the future. If used in a toast (but not otherwise) the sentence word order becomes object–subject–verb. E.g. wo’ ghaw­ran Dev­taH­jaj May Gowron continue to lead the Empire, if the same thing were to be expressed as a wish or aspiration on the speaker's part, and not a toast, it would be said wo’ Dev­taH­jaj ghaw­ran instead. Note: Klingons seem to be a bit touchy on the subject of toasts, and so it is important to use only the handful of accepted toasts. [PK; KGT pp. 25–26]

Nominalizers (Turns Verb into Noun)

-wI’ one who does/is, thing which does/is

In reference to inanimate objects it means thing which does/is or thing which is used for, when referring to beings it means one who does/is. E.g. joq­wI’ flag; nan­wI’ chisel; baH­wI’ gunner; puj­wI’ weakling. Also used to say things like Doq­wI’ the red one. [TKD 3.2.2]

-ghach nominalizer [TKDa]

Turns a verb (which must have at least one other suffix attached) into a noun. The use of this suffix often makes for bad Klingon, and it is strongly suggested that you refrain from using any word with -ghach, unless it is found in the dictionary. E.g. naD­Ha’­ghach discommendation; naD­qa’­ghach re-commendation.

R.Rovers [TKD 4.3]

-be’ not

This suffix follows the element (verb or verb suffix) which it negates, e.g. cho­HoH­vIp­be’ You are not afraid to kill me, cho­HoH­be’­vIp You are afraid to not kill me. It cannot be used in imperatives (where -Qo’ is used instead), but it can be applied to verbs used adjectivally, e.g. yIH­mey lI’­be’ useless tribbles [TKDa 4.2.9; CK]

-Qo’ don't!, won't!

This suffix always occurs last, unless followed by a type 9 suffix. It is used in imperatives and to denote refusal.

-Ha’ undo

Always occurs immediately after the verb, before any other suffixes. It indicates that something that was previously done is now undone, or that something is done wrongly, e.g. nob­Ha’ give back; yaj­Ha’ misunderstand. Can also be applied to verbs used adjectivally, e.g. ’ey­Ha’ undelicious; yep­Ha’ careless. [KGT pp. 30, 84, 150]

-qu’ emphatic

This suffix follows the element (verb or verb suffix) which it emphasizes, e.g. nI­muS­law’­qu’ They SEEM to hate you, nI­muS­qu’­law’ They seem to HATE you. Can also be applied to verbs used adjectivally, e.g. veng tIn­qu’ very big city. [TKD 4.4]

Noun Suffixes

1.Size/Importance [TKD 3.3.1]

-’a’ augmentative

Indicates that the noun is bigger, more important, or more powerful than it would be without the suffix.

-Hom diminutive

Indicates that the noun is smaller, less important, or less powerful than it would be without the suffix.

-oy endearment [TKDa]

A is probably inserted before this suffix, if the noun it attaches to ends in a vowel.

2.Number [TKD 3.3.2]

-pu’ plural for beings capable of using language
-Du’ plural for body parts
-mey plural, general usage

The suffix -mey carries a notion of “scattered all about” when applied to words that normally take the suffix -pu’ (puq­mey children all over the place versus puq­pu’ children). The same thing happens when the -mey plural suffix is applied to the singular form of a noun that is irregularly pluralized (DoS­mey targets scattered all about versus ray’ targets).

3.Qualification [TKD 3.3.3]

-qoq so-called
-Hey apparent
-na’ definite

4.Possession/Specification [TKD 3.3.4]

Possessives for Beings Capable of Using Language

-wI’ my
-ma’ our
-lI’ your
-ra’ your (plural)

These suffixes are used to indicate possessives when referring to beings capable of speech, e.g. jup­wI’ my friend; be’­nal­lI’ your wife; puq­ma’ our child. The general possessive suffixes may also be used, but they are considered derogatory; juH­wIj for my lord borders on the taboo.

Possessives, General Usage

-wIj my
-maj our
-lIj your
-raj your (plural)
-Daj his, her, its
-chaj their

Though it is grammatically correct, it is considered derogatory to use these general possessive suffixes when referring to first or second persons that are capable of language (i.e. I, we, you or you [plural]).

Specification

-vam this

Indicates that the noun refers to an object which is nearby or which is the topic of the conversation, e.g. nuH­vam this weapon (near me as I speak); yuQ­vam this planet (that we have been talking about).

-vetlh that

Indicates that the noun refers to an object which is not nearby or which is being brought up again as topic of the conversation, e.g. nuH­vetlh that weapon (over there); yuQ­vetlh that planet (as opposed to the one we were just talking about).

5.Syntactic Markers [TKD 3.3.5]

-Daq locative

This corresponds to English prepositions such as: at, to, in, on, depending on context, e.g. juH­Daq jIH I'm at home; meH­Daq yI­qet Run to the bridge! It is not used in the abstract sense of in English. Some nouns never take this suffix (notably na­Dev hereabouts; pa’ thereabouts; Dat everywhere). pa’ can mean both room and thereabouts but is distinct in use, e.g. pa’ yI­jaH Go over there! pa’­Daq yI­jaH Go to the room! Some verbs include locative notions, and take a place as object rather than locative, e.g. Duj ghoS­taH It is approaching the ship.

-vo’ from

Similar to -Daq but used only for actions directed away from a place, e.g. pa’­vo’ yI­jaH Leave the room! This suffix cannot be used in the abstract sense of from the past.

-mo’ due to, because of

E.g. HIq­mo’ bI­’uH You have a hangover because of the alcohol. Note that there is also a verb suffix -mo’ with the same meaning.

-vaD for, intended for

Indicates the indirect object, or beneficiary of the action. The indirect object precedes the object, e.g. chaH­vaD Soj qem yaS The officer brings them food; Qu’­vaD lI’ De’­vam This information is useful for the mission. [TKDa 6.8]

-’e’ topic

Emphasizes that the noun it is attached to is the topic of the sentence. Is also used to mark the head noun of a relative clause (see verb suffix -bogh which above). If the object of a sentence is marked with -’e’ adverbials may come after the object instead at the beginning of the sentence. [TKDa 6.7]